The development of this science is closely connected with the names of Robert Hooke, A. Leeuwenhoek, T.Shvann, M. Schleiden.

Cytology is a science that studies the structure, chemical composition, vital processes and reproduction of cells, as well as its origin and evolution.


Viruses do not multiply by division or budding, or any other way. The process of growth is not peculiar for them. What is a virus?

After the penetration into the cell - the host, the viruses multiply in several steps: a) the replication of the viral genome (viral genetic material); b) the self-assembly of the capsid (protein shell). It is believed that viruses and bacteriophages (bacterial viruses) are isolated genetic elements of cells that have evolved along with the cellular life forms. Therefore, viruses in modern biology, are considered one of the five kingdoms of living nature.


In animal cells spare carbohydrate is

Glycogen is a storage material of animal cells. Its monomer is beta-glucose.


The unit of the development of organisms is

The unit of the development of organisms is

The basic unit of organisms is the cell. Cell organelles do not operate such a function.

Cells 2

The cells of organisms of all kingdoms of nature have

The cells of organisms of all kingdoms of nature have

Bacterial cells do not have mitochondria, chloroplasts and the nucleus. The cytoplasm is necessarily presented in the cells of all kingdoms of nature.

Genetic information of the cell

The genetic information about attributes of an organism is focused in the cell. That's why the cell is called

Hereditary information is concentrated in the cell nucleus and is called genetic information. Therefore, the cell is a genetic unit of living things.


Most bacteria belong to a group of which organisms?

Most bacteria are decomposers. They recycle dead organic matter to inorganic and close the material cycle. Thus, most bacteria are destroyers of organic substances.

Nuclear meterial

The cells of which organisms' nuclear material are located in the cytoplasm and are not separated from the shell?

The bacteria and blue-green algae belong to prokaryotes. Plants, animals and fungi are eukaryotes and they have a drawn up nucleus.

Unicellular animal

The cell of an unicellular animal

Animal cells have an endoplasmic reticulum. Plant cells have a vacuole with cell liquid and generate organic substances from inorganic.

Cell differentiation

Cell differentiation is

Cell differentiation is the formation of cells with different functions and structure (during embryogenesis).