Biosynthetic reactions

The set of biosynthetic reactions in the body is called

Metabolism is a set of chemical reactions that occur in a living body for sustaining life.

The set of biosynthetic reactions in the body is called assimilation.

Dissimilation is a metabolic breakdown process.

Catabolism is the other name of the dissimilation process.

Decomposition reactions

The set of decomposition and oxidation reactions occurring in the body is called

Metabolism is a set of chemical reactions that occur in a living body for sustaining life.

The set of biosynthetic reactions in the body is called assimilation.

Dissimilation is a metabolic breakdown process.

Anabolism is the other name of the assimilation process.

Organic matter from inorganic source

Who forms organic matter from inorganic, using an inorganic source of carbon and energy of light?

Photoautotrophs use the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis. These are plants and photosynthetic bacteria.

Chemoautotrophs use the energy of the oxidation of inorganic compounds. These include, for example, nitrifying bacteria, iron bacteria, sulfur bacteria, hydrogen bacteria.

Heterotrophs are organisms which are not able to synthesize organic substances from inorganic or by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Organic matter

Which organisms synthesize organic matter using the energy of oxidation of organic matter and organic carbon source?

Photoautotrophs use the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis. These are plants and photosynthetic bacteria.

Chemoautotrophs use the energy of the oxidation of inorganic compounds. These include, for example, nitrifying bacteria, iron bacteria, sulfur bacteria, hydrogen bacteria.

Chemoheterotrophs synthesize organic matter, using the energy of oxidation of organic matter and organic carbon source.

Rays

What energy rays are required in large quantities for the light phase of photosynthesis?

When a photon is absorbed a chlorophyll molecule goes from the ground (S0) state to one of the excited singlet states - S1 (absorption of red light) or S2 (absorption of blue light).

Photosynthetic pigments

Where are the photosynthetic pigments situated?

The main photosynthetic pigments are chlorophylls.
In the cell, the chlorophyll molecules are in various states of aggregation. They form a pigment-lipoprotein complex with other important proteins and are associated with proteins of photosynthetic (thylakoid) membranes.

Protons

Where do protons accumulate in the light phase of photosynthesis?

Under the action of light, electrons of chlorophyll excite, leave the molecule and fall on the outer side of the thylakoid membrane, which ultimately become negatively charged. The oxidized molecules of chlorophyll are restored and take away electrons from water present in intrathylakoid space. This leads to disintegration or photolysis of water. Oxygen is removed with the external environment, and inside the thylakoid protons are accumulated in the "proton reservoir."

Dark phase

Where does the reaction of the dark phase of photosynthesis go?

The dark phase occurs in the chloroplast stroma. For reactions it is not necessary to have light energy, so they could occur not only in the light, but in the dark. Dark phase reactions are the chain of successive transformations of carbon dioxide (taken from the air), resulting in the formation of glucose and other organic substances.

Dark phase 2

What happens in the dark phase of photosynthesis?

Dark phase reactions are the chain of successive transformations of carbon dioxide (taken from the air), resulting in the formation of glucose and other organic substances (carbohydrates).

Oxygen

In photosynthesis the O2 is released. Where does it come from?

The photolysis of water:

H2O → H + Qlight + OH-.

Hydroxyl ions give their electrons and become reactive radicals • OH:

OH → • OH + e.

• OH radicals combine to form water and free oxygen:

• 4 OH → 2H2O + O2

Location

Where do the reactions of light and dark phase of photosynthesis take place?

The dark phase occurs in the chloroplast stroma. The light phase occurs in the thylakoids.

Glycolysis

Which enzymes provide glycolysis?

All enzymes in the glycolytic pathway are situated in outermitochondrial soluble cell fraction (cytoplasm).

Light phase

The reactions of photosynthesis light phase are characterized by

The reactions of photosynthesis light phase are characterized by

The reactions of photosynthesis light phase occur in the thylakoid membranes. The high energy products are formed during the light phase of photosynthesis: ATPt that serves as cell energy source and NADPH, which is used as a reducing agent. The oxygen is released as a byproduct.

Dark phase 3

The reactions of the dark phase of photosynthesis are characterized by

In the dark phase with the participation of ATP and NADPH CO2 reduction to glucose (C6H12O6) occurs. Although light is not required for this process, it is involved in its regulation. Calvin cycle is a part of the dark phase.

Transcription

Transcription in eukaryotes takes place in

Transcription in eukaryotes takes place in the nucleus.

DNA 3

What may be encoded on the DNA?

DNA encoded protein (polypeptide) production.

Transcription 2

Transcription requires:

Transcription is the process of RNA synthesis using DNA as template. In other words, it is the transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA. Transcription is catalyzed by the enzyme RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. It means that transcription requires DNA strand and RNA polymerase.

Replication

Replication requires

Replication is a process of synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules on parental DNA template molecule. Replication ensures correctness by the activity of DNA polymerase enzyme. It means that replication requires DNA template (deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates) and DNA polymerase.

Exchange reaction

In what exchange reactions is water the starting material for the synthesis of carbohydrates?

The starting material for the synthesis of carbohydrates is water in the reactions of photosynthesis, because in the light phase of photosynthesis photolysis of water occurs.

ATP synthesis

In what phase of photosynthesis does the synthesis of ATP take place?

There are two phases of photosynthesis: the dark phase and the light phase. During the light phase of photosynthesis high energy products are formed: ATP and NADPH. The oxygen is released as a byproduct. In the dark phase with the participation of ATP and NADPH, CO2 reduction to glucose (C6H12O6) occurs.

Ready-made organic substances

Which of the following is fed by ready-made organic substances?

Ferns, algae, mosses are plants. They are autotrophs and during photosynthesis they produce organic matter from inorganic through photosynthesis by themselves. Mushrooms are heterotrophs that don't have chloroplasts and are fed ready-made organic compounds.

Ready-made organic substances 2

Who feeds using ready-made organic compounds?

Autotrophs are divided into chemotrophs and phototrophs and synthesize organic compounds from inorganic by themselves. Heterotrophs use ready-made organic compounds.

Encoding

How many amino acids encode 900 nucleotide?

One amino acid encodes 3 nucleotides. Then  900 nucleotides : 3= 300 triplets of amino acids.

Plastic metabolism

What has happened during plastic metabolism?

Plastic exchange is the formation of complex substances from simple cells in the body. The rest of these processes occur at the energy exchange.

Complementarity

Complementarity principle is the basis of cooperation for

Complementarity principle underlies doubling (replication) of DNA molecules. On the basis of complementarity the subsidiary DNA chain is formed.

Complementarity 2

Complementarity principle constitutes the basis of the formation of hydrogen bonds between

The DNA molecule consists of two complementary strands. They are joined together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases. Between adenine and thymine there is a double bond, between cytosine and guanine there are three hydrogen bonds.

Plastic metabolism 2

Plastic metabolism in animal cells cannot occur without energy and for this purpose energy metabolism provides

Plastic metabolism needs energy, so without ATP, this process does not occur.

Synthesis reaction

All the reactions of synthesis of organic compounds occur with

Synthesis reactions use energy while decomposition reactions occur with energy release.

Sequence

Which sequence correctly reflects the way of genetic information realization?

Gene information corresponds to mRNA, followed by the translation process where a protein is formed. A protein forms a sign.

Plastic metabolism 3

Which molecules are synthesized in cells during plastic metabolism?

During plastic metabolism proteins are synthesized in cells.
ATP is synthesized during metabolism of energy, water and inorganic substances enter with the food.

Primary structure 2

The primary structure of protein molecules defined by mRNA nucleotide sequence is formed in the process of

The primary structure of the protein molecule, predetermined by nucleotide sequence of mRNA, is formed in the translation process.
Transcription is a rewriting of information from DNA to mRNA.
Reduplication is a doubling of the DNA molecule.
Denaturation is the destruction of protein structure.

Plastic metabolism 4

Plastic metabolism in cells is characterized by

During the plastic metabolism complex substances with the accumulation of energy in them are formed from simple substances.

Triplet

What mRNA molecule triplet corresponds to the code triplet AAT in the DNA molecule?

mRNA is formed based on the principle of complementarity, considering the fact that in RNA uracil goes instead of thymine. So the DNA triplet AAT corresponds to the mRNA triplet UUA.

Triplet 2

What m RNA anticodon triplet corresponds to TGA in the DNA molecule?

If in the job you are asked to find anticodon tRNA, the sequence of actions is as follows:
- First, based on complementarity principle of DNA codon find mRNA.
- Then on the basis of the principle of complementarity of mRNA find tRNA anticodon.
Because the DNA - TGA corresponds to the mRNA, and in RNA there is uracil  instead of thymine. It means the triplet of mRNA will be ACU, and it is complementary to the triplet of tRNA - UGA.

Triplet 3

What tRNA triplet is complementary to the GCU mRNA codon?

The anticodon of tRNA is complementary to the mRNA codon, so GCU on the mRNA corresponds to the CGA on the tRNA.

Codon

Which DNA triplet codon corresponds to the mRNA codon UGC?

Triplets of mRNA are complementary to DNA triplets, considering that the mRNA uracil goes instead of thymine. UGC in mRNA corresponds to ACG in DNA.

Proteins

Where are proteins synthesized in the plant organism?

Proteins are synthesized on ribosomes in animal and plant organisms.

Protein synthesis

When does protein synthesis at the ribosomes stop?

Protein synthesis on ribosomes stops when the ribosome "reaches" the stop codon of the mRNA. Stop codons do not encode amino acids, they are points in protein synthesis.

Nucleotides 2

The number of thymine nucleotides in the DNA molecule is 20% of the total. What is the percentage of cytosine nucleotides in this molecule?

This task is solved by the rule of Chargaff, since the rule of complementarity of DNA nucleotides is connected with guanine-cytosine, thymine-adenine pairs, and their number in the normal molecule
(A + T) + (G + C) = 100%.
Hence, if T = 20%,
A = T = 20%;
G = C = (100% - (20% + 20%)) / 2 = 30%.

Anticodon

Define the sequence of tRNA anticodon, if mRNA removed the information from the DNA fragment having the nucleotide sequence AGC-TTA-GCT.

First, we define the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA: UCG-AAU-CGA, then according to the principle of complementarity we build tRNA: AGC-UUA-GCU.

Triplet 4

The same amino acid corresponds to a transfer RNA anticodon AGC. The DNA triplet will be

The tRNA anticodon is complementary to the mRNA; DNA is complementary to the mRNA codons:

tRNA - AGC, mRNA - UCG, DNA - AGC.

The DNA sequence can be written or complementary mRNA; or the same as the tRNA - only U replaces T.

Plastic metabolism 5

Which process is the function of plastic metabolism?

Plastic metabolism (biosynthesis) is the process by which simple substances use energy to produce (synthesize) more complex substances. Example: protein biosynthesis.

Lipid synthesis

What process results in lipid synthesis?

Plastic exchange is the process by which simple substances use energy to produce (synthesize) more complex compounds.
Dissimilation and biological oxidation are part of energy metabolism. Glycolysis is the second phase of energy metabolism.

Glycolysis in animal cells

What is formed with an O2 deficiency in animal cells during glycolysis?

In animals and some bacteria with oxygen deficiency, lactic fermentation occurs to produce lactic acid:
S3N4O3 + NAD · H2 → S3N6O3 + NAD +.

Glycolysis in plant cells

What is formed in plant cells with a deficiency of O2 during glycolysis?

If there is no oxygen, in yeast and plants alcoholic fermentation takes place. In alcoholic fermentation first the formation of acetaldehyde occurs, and then ethyl alcohol could form:
1.C3H4O3 → CO2 + CH3COH,
2.CH3COH + NAD · H2 → C2H5OH + NAD +.

CO2 in glycolysis

Three moles of glucose were subjected during glycolysis in animal cells with a deficiency of oxygen. How many CO2 molecules at the same time stand out?

In animal and some bacteria cells with oxygen deficiency lactic fermentation occurs to produce lactic acid:
C3H4O3 + NAD · H2 → C3H6O3 + NAD +.

The preparatory phase

Where do the preparatory phase reactions occur?

The preparatory phase reactions occur in the digestive tract and lysosomes.

Energy of the glycolysis

What happens to the energy that is released in the reactions of oxygen-free oxidation of glucose (glycolysis)?

The energy that is released in the reactions of oxygen-free oxidation of glucose (glycolysis) is stored in the form of ATP.

Energy of breathing

What happens to the energy that is released in the reactions of oxygen oxidation (breathing)?

The energy that is released in the reactions of oxygen oxidation (breathing)  is dissipated in the form of heat (45%) and stocked in the form of ATP (55%).

The product

Which product is formed in the mitochondria during glycolysis?

Pyruvic acid is formed in the mitochondria during glycolysis.

C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2H3PO4 + 2NAD+ →  2C3H4O3 + 2ATP + + 2H2O + 2NAD · H2.

Krebs cycle

What substance enters the Krebs cycle?

The Krebs cycle is a cyclic biochemical process in which acetyl residues (CH3CO-) oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2).

Krebs cycle 2

Where do the reactions of the Krebs cycle occur?

Krebs cycle reactions occur in the inner membrane of mitochondria and respiratory chain enzymes.

pairs of H2

PVC was completely destructed to the molecule in the mitochondria. How many pairs of hydrogen atoms at the same time are formed?

The reaction of PVC destructions is:

C6H12O6 + 6H2O → 6CO2 + 4ATP + 12H2.

Triplet 5

What determines the sequence of triplets in mRNA?

The sequence of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain (primary structure of the protein), on which its biological properties depend, is determined by the sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule (and thus complementary mRNA).

Cells of any organism

Which of the following is true about all cells of the organism?

The cells of any organism are required to synthesize proteins (even in prokaryotes there are ribosomes, the main function of which is protein synthesis). Proteins are also enzymes and building material without  which a cell cannot exist.

Triplets

Triplets on the mRNA, that do not determine the position of the amino acids in the protein molecule, provide

Three codons determine the termination of the polypeptide chain synthesis signal (termination of translation): UAA, UAG and UGA. This means that at the location of the messenger RNA (mRNA), where any of these codons are situated, polypeptide chain synthesis is terminated. Codons indicating the termination of synthesis of polypeptide chains are called stop codons.

20 animo acids

How many nucleotides does a gene section contain, if it encodes a sequence of 20 amino acids?

One amino acid is encoded by 3 nucleotides, then 20 x 3 = 60 nucleotides.

Meaning of plastic metabolism

The meaning of plastic metabolism is the body's supply of

Plastic metabolism (biosynthesis) is a process in which simple substances produce (synthesized) more complex ones with a use of energy. Plastic metabolism provides a cell with complex organic molecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids).

Protein molecule

One protein molecule is encoded by

Gene is a unit of genetic material or DNA portion (in some viruses - RNA), which determines (encodes) the possibility of any sign.
Gene on the molecular level encodes the protein molecule.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

What is the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

The synthesis and modification of lipids is a function of smooth EPS.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes on its surface, i.e. the protein synthesis takes place on it, and it also provides transport of proteins. The accumulation of digestive enzymes is the function of the Golji complex. The oxidation of fats and carbohydrates is the function of mitochondria.

Uniqueness of the genetic code

The uniqueness of the genetic code is shown in the fact that

One triplet encodes only its amino acid. This is its property of uniqueness.

reactions of template synthesis

Which of the following does not belong to the reactions of template synthesis?

Transpiration is the evaporation of water in plants.

Iron

Iron is a part of

Iron is a part of hemoglobin.