###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Which type of compound is shown?

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

​Which diagram shows the structure of oxalic asid?

Number 4.

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Three types of organic compound are alkanes, alkenes and alcohols. Which structure does not belong to any of these three types of compound?

Number 3.

###### Alkenes

Which compound has chemical properties similar to those of butadiene?

All compounds.

###### Alkanes

The interaction of n-butane with chlorine proceeds

Halogenation of alkanes proceeds by a radical mechanism. To initiate the reaction mixture of halogen alkane is irradiated with UV light or heated. Chloration of alkanes results in a product mixture of hydrogen substitution on different carbon atoms.

###### Alkanes

M, N, X, Y and Z are five hydrocarbons.

What do compounds M, N, X, Y and Z have in common?

All of them are alkanes and all of them are part of the same homologous series.

###### Alkenes

Make a molecular formula of a compound.

The correct answer is $$C_{11}H_{18}$$

###### Alkenes

With which of three substances can 1-Butene react?

1-Butene can react with $$H_2O, HBr, KMnO_4$$

1) Hydration reaction proceeds in the presence of sulfuric acid:

$$CH_2=CH-CH_2-CH_3 + H_2O\to CH_3-CH(OH)-CH_2-CH_3$$

$$CH_2=CH-CH_2-CH_3 + HBr \to CH_3-CHBr-CH_2-CH_3$$

3) Oxidation of inorganic oxidants:

$$3CH_2=CH-CH_2-CH_3 + 2KMnO_4 + 4H_2O \to CH_2(OH)-CH(OH)-CH_2-CH_3 +2KOH + 2MnO_2$$

###### Alcohols

1-propanol can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting:

1-propanol is formed by the reaction of 1-chloropropane with aqueous alkali solution. Halogen substitution reaction occurs on hydroxide ions.

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Obtained from cellulose:

Main fibers derived from cellulose - viscose and acetate fiber. Viscose composition is a pure cellulose. Acetate fiber comprises triacetylcellulose.

###### Crude oil

Do the components of crude oil have no chemical transformation?

The physical process of separating crude oil into fractions on the basis of differences in the temperatures of boiling of the components is distillation. Cracking and reforming are chemical reactions.

###### Synthetic rubber

A synthetic rubber is prepared from

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

In what organic compounds does carbon form a double bond?

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Select the formula in which all four atoms of carbon have $$sp^2-$$ and hybridization occurs.

The correct answer is $$CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2$$

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Determine the hybridization of carbon atoms in the carbon dioxide molecule.

The carbon atom forms bonds in the excited state in which it has four unpaired electrons: $$2s^12p^3$$. In the formation of ties $$sp-$$hybridization of orbitals occurs. Hybrid orbitals are directed along a straight line to the opposite side of the atomic nucleus, and two remaining clean (non-hybrid) p-orbitals are perpendicular to each other and to the hybrid orbitals. All of the orbitals (hybrid and non-hybrid) contain one unpaired electron each.

Each oxygen atom having two unpaired electrons in two mutually perpendicular p-orbitals is attached to a carbon atom with $$\sigma$$-bond, and $$\pi$$-coupling: $$\sigma$$-bond is formed with the help of hybrid carbon orbitals and $$\pi$$-bond is formed by overlapping of clean p-orbitals of carbon and oxygen atoms.

###### Introduction to organic chemistry

What are the closest homologs that have ethanol?

They are methanol and propanol.

Methanol: $$CH_3OH$$

Ethanol: $$CH_3CH_2OH$$

Propanol: $$CH_3CH_2CH_2OH$$

###### Alkanes

The reaction of bromination of methane occurs in the light

The reaction of bromination of methane occurs in the light:

2. In several steps
3. At the beginning of the reaction in a molecule of bromine the rupture of the bond occurs
4. With releasing of hydrogen
###### Introduction to organic chemistry

Interaction of ethane and ethylene with chlorine respectively refers to reactions:

$$CH_3 – CH_3 + Cl_2 \to CH_2Cl – CH_2Cl + H_2$$ (Substitution reaction)

$$CH_2 = CH_2 + Cl_2 \to CH_2Cl – CH_2Cl$$ (Connecting reaction)

###### Alkanes

How does the interaction of propane with bromine take place in the light?

The interaction between propane and bromine in the light is the substitution reaction and proceeds by a radical mechanism.

###### Alcohols

What class of substances includes glycerin?

The correct answer is polyatomic alcohol

###### Alcohols

Which compound is formed by the oxidation of methanol?

The correct answer is $$CH_2O$$

$$2CH_3OH+O_2 \to 2HCOH+2H_2O$$ (the reaction proceeds with a copper catalyst under heating)

###### Halogenoalkanes

What substance is formed preferably by reacting propene with hydrogen chloride?

$$CH_2 = CH– CH_3 + HCl \to CH_3 – CHCl – CH_3$$ (Chlorine atom attached to a carbon atom of the least hydrogenated)

###### Halogenoalkanes

What compound is obtained by reaction of 1 mole of $$CH_4$$ with 2 moles of $$Cl_2$$ in the light?

The correct answer is $$CH_2Cl_2$$

$$CH_4 + 2Cl_2 \to CH_2Cl_2 + 2HCl$$

###### Alcohols

True or not, the propositions about the properties of alcohol?

A. At the esterification of alcohols esters are formed.

B. The interaction of alcohols and carboxylic acids leads to the formation of new acid and alcohol.

A only true