Development and globalisation

Was the highest speed of economic growth in the XXth century in developed or developing countries?

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. On the other hand, since the late 1990s, developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones.

Development Gap 1

Read the definition and write down missed term.

____________ - this is the value of all goods and services produced within a country. It is usually measured in US$ and calculated per capita. This makes comparisons between different countries easier.

GDP - this is the value of all goods and services produced within a country. It is usually measured in US$ and calculated per capita. This makes comparisons between different countries easier.

Development Gap 2

Read the definition and write down missed term.

 ____________ is the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad), minus income of non-residents located in that country.

GNP is the total value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a particular year, plus income earned by its citizens (including income of those located abroad), minus income of non-residents located in that country.

Development Gap 3

Read the definition and write down missed term.

This is not an official measure of the exchange rate, but is often used to assess at what level the exchange rate ought to be.

__________ gives a 'parity', or exchange rate, based on the prices of a given basket of goods and services in two different countries.

This is not an official measure of the exchange rate, but is often used to assess at what level the exchange rate ought to be.

PPP (Purchasing Power Parity) - gives a 'parity', or exchange rate, based on the prices of a given basket of goods and services in two different countries.

Development Gap 4

______________ as devised by the United Nations in 1990 and uses a number of indicators of development to give each country in the world a development score. The score ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 being the most developed. No country has reached a score of 1, although some, such as Japan and Canada have attained marks well over 0.9.

The indicators of __________ are:

  • Literacy
  • Life Expectancy
  • The GNP per person, adjusted to take into account the cost of living in that country.

The ____________ is a more effective measure than just using GDP, as it brings in social considerations also. However it still has problems because it does not show any of the regional differences within a country.

HDI (Human Development Index) as devised by the United Nations in 1990 and uses a number of indicators of development to give each country in the world a development score. The score ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 being the most developed. No country has reached a score of 1, although some, such as Japan and Canada have attained marks well over 0.9.

 

The indicators of HDI (Human Development Index) are:

  • Literacy
  • Life Expectancy
  • The GNP per person, adjusted to take into account the cost of living in that country.

The HDI (Human Development Index) is a more effective measure than just using GDP, as it brings in social considerations also. However it still has problems because it does not show any of the regional differences within a country.

Development Gap 5

Choose which indicators are used for calculating the HDI:

The dimensions and indicators of the HDI

  • The HID sts a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts,and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1.
  • HID has three dimensions, measured by one or two indicators each:
  • Leading a long and healthy life
    • Life expectancy at birth
  • Education
    • Adult literacy rate
    • Gross primary, secondary and teritary enrolment
  • A decent standart of living
    • GDP per capita (PPP US$)
Development Gap 6

Read definition and write down missed term.

_______________ is an imaginary division that has provided a rough way of dividing all of the countries in the world in to the rich north and poor south.

Picture In 1980 the Brandt Line was drawn up to divide countries into one of two categories: More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) to the North and Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) to South.
Public awareness of the development gap is not new. It was first brought into the news headlines in the Brandt Report in 1980. This report, by Willy Brandt, a German politician, drew a line on the map that separated the richer countries from the poorer ones.

Development Gap 7

From list of countries below choose NICs

In the 1970s and 1980s, examples of newly industrialized countries included Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. Examples in the late 2000s included South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Economists and political scientists sometimes disagree over the classification of these countries.

Development Gap 8

_________ measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development - health, knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI. The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same methodology as in the HDI. It is a direct measure of gender gap showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI.

The new GDI measures gender gaps in human development achievements by accounting for disparities between women and men in three basic dimensions of human development - health, knowledge and living standards using the same component indicators as in the HDI. The GDI is the ratio of the HDIs calculated separately for females and males using the same methodology as in the HDI. It is a direct measure of gender gap showing the female HDI as a percentage of the male HDI.

The GDI is calculated for 161 countries. Countries are grouped into five groups based on the absolute deviation from gender parity in HDI values. This means that grouping takes equally into consideration gender gaps favoring males, as well as those favoring females.

The GDI shows how much women are lagging behind their male counterparts and how much women need to catch up within each dimension of human development. It is good for understanding the real gender gap in human development achievements and is useful to design policy tools to close the gap.

Development Gap 9

What is the position of UK in the world list of HDI?

The top ten countries:
1. Norway: 0.955
2. Australia: 0.938
3. USA - 0.937
4. Netherlands - 0.921
5. Germany - 0.920
6. New Zealand - 0.919
7. Republic of Ireland - 0.916
8. Sweden - 0.916
9. Switzerland - 0.913
10. Japan - 0.912
The UK comes in at 27 with a HDI of 0.875

Development Gap 10

Watch the list of countries below and choose the countries with very high human development index.

There is a list of countries with very high human development index

  1. Norway
  2. Australia
  3. Switzerland
  4. Denmark
  5. Netherlands
  6. Germany
  7. Ireland
  8. United States
  9. Canada
  10. New Zealand
  11. Singapore
  12. Hong Kong, China (SAR)
  13. Liechtenstein
  14. Sweden
  15. United Kingdom
  16. Iceland
  17. Korea (Republic of )
  18. Israel
  19. Luxembourg
  20. Japan
  21. Belgium
  22. France
  23. Austria
  24. Finland
  25. Slovenia
  26. Spain
  27. Italy
  28. Czech Republic
  29. Greece
  30. Estonia
  31. Brunei Darussalam
  32. Cyprus
  33. Qatar
  34. Andorra
  35. Slovakia
  36. Poland
  37. Lithuania
  38. Malta
  39. Saudi Arabia
  40. Argentina
  41. United Arab Emirates
  42. Chile
  43. Portugal
  44. Hungary
  45. Bahrain
  46. Latvia
  47. Croatia
  48. Kuwait
  49. Montenegro
Development Gap 11

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

___________________ is the name given to a country which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.

Least developed country (LDC) is the name given to a country which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.

Development Gap 12

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

____________ describes a nation with a low level of material well being that is above the LDCs and is in the early stages of developing industry

Emerging or Developing country (EDCs) describes a nation with a low level of material well being that is above the LDCs and is in the early stages of developing industry

Development Gap 13

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

____________________________are countries which have moved beyond EDCs as they begin to industrialise rapidly but are not yet at the stage of NICs

Rapidly Industrialising Countries (RICs) are countries which have moved beyond EDCs as they begin to industrialise rapidly but are not yet at the stage of NICs

Development Gap 14

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

________________ are countries whose economies have not yet reached 'First World' status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts.

Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs) are countries whose economies have not yet reached 'First World' status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts.

Development Gap 15

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

________________ is the unrestricted purchase and sale of goods and services between countries without the imposition of constraints such as tariffs, duties and quotas.

Free trade is the unrestricted purchase and sale of goods and services between countries without the imposition of constraints such as tariffs, duties and quotas. Free trade is a win-win proposition because it enables nations to focus on their core competitive advantage(s), thereby maximizing economic output and fostering income growth for their citizens.

Development Gap 16

Read the definition below and write down missed term.

_________ - is a set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association.

Trade bloc - is a group of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association..

The most well known trade bloc is NAFTA, between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Some opponents of trade blocs believe that such agreements are detrimental to global free trade.

Development Gap 17

Read the definition and write down the missed term.

_______________________ is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South.

  • It proves that greater justice in world trade is possible.
  • It highlights the need for change in the rules and practice of conventional trade and shows how a successful business can also put people first.
  • It is a tangible contribution to the fight against poverty, climate change and economic crisis.

Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the South.

  • It proves that greater justice in world trade is possible.
  • It highlights the need for change in the rules and practice of conventional trade and shows how a successful business can also put people first.
  • It is a tangible contribution to the fight against poverty, climate change and economic crisis.