Coastal Environments 1

Name the chief type of rocky coast from the figure shown below:

Name the chief type of rocky coast from the figure shown below:

Plunging-cliff coasts lack any development of shore platforms.Most plunging cliffs are formed by the drowning of pre-existing, wave-formed cliffs resulting from a fall of land level or a rise of sea level.

Coastal Environments 2

Look at the figure and write down the missed words in the description, shown below.

_______________ are flat or almost so. They go by a host of names: abrasion or denuded benches, coastal platforms, low-rock terraces or platforms, marine benches, rock platforms, shore benches, shore platforms, storm-wave platforms, storm terraces, wave-cut benches, and wave-cut platforms. Some of these terms indicate causal agents, e.g. ‘wave-cut’ and ‘abrasion’. Because the processes involved in platform evolution are not fully known, the purely descriptive term ‘shore platform’ is preferable to any others from the wide choice available.

Horizontal platforms
Coastal Environments 3

Choose the right description of the formation for Fingal’s Cave (Isle of Staffa, Scotland)

A sea cave is a hollow excavated by waves in a zone of weakness on a cliff. The cave depth is greater than the entrance width. Sea caves tend to form at points of geological weakness, such as bedding planes, joints, and faults. Fingal’s Cave, Isle of Staffa, Scotland, which is formed in columnar basalt, is a prime example. It is 20 m high and 70 m long.

Coastal Environments 4

In Scotland, and sometimes elsewhere, this landform is known as geos or yawns,but on the granitic peninsula of Land’s End in Cornwall, south-west England, known as zawns. Write down the name of this landform.

A gorge is a narrow, steep-sided, and often spectacular cleft, usually developed by erosion along vertical fault planes or joints in rock with a low dip. They may also form by the erosion of dykes, the collapse of lava tunnels in igneous rock, and the collapse of mining tunnels. In Scotland, and sometimes elsewhere, gorges are known as geos or yawns, and on the granitic peninsula of Land’s End in Cornwall, south-west England, as zawns.

Karst landscapes and processes 2

Read the definition and write down the missed term.

_________ are produced suddenly when the roof of a cave formed by underground solution gives way and fractures or ruptures rock and soil

Collapse dolines are produced suddenly when the roof of a cave formed by underground solution gives way and fractures or ruptures rock and soil.

Coastal Environments 5

Read the definition below and fill the missed term.

..... are created by the process of Long shore drift. Some eroded material ends up caught up within the waves and is carried by the sea along the coastline in cells known as littoral cells. Material is carried along the shore in a zigzag fashion by waves as they swash material up the beach at an angle and backwash material down the beach at a right angle. The angle of swash is determined by the prevailing wind (the dominant or main direction in which the wind blows).

Spits are created by the process of Long shore drift. Some eroded material ends up caught up within the waves and is carried by the sea along the coastline in cells known as littoral cells. Material is carried along the shore in a zigzag fashion by waves as they swash material up the beach at an angle and backwash material down the beach at a right angle. The angle of swash is determined by the prevailing wind (the dominant or main direction in which the wind blows).

Coastal Environments 6

Choose statements that describes eustatic changes.

Eustatic Change

Eustatic change is when the sea level changes due to an alteration in the volume of water in the oceans or, alternatively, a change in the shape of an ocean basin and hence a change in the amount of water the sea can hold. Eustatic change is always a global effect.

During and after an ice age, eustatic change takes place. At the beginning of an ice age, the temperature falls and water is frozen and stored in glaciers inland, suspending the hydrological cycle. This results in water being taken out of the sea but not being put back in leading to an overall fall in sea level. Conversely, as an ice age ends, the temperature begins to rise and so the water stored in the glaciers will reenter the hydrological cycle and the sea will be replenished, increasing the sea levels.

Increases in temperature outside of an ice age will also effect the sea level since an increasing temperature will cause the ice sheets to melt, putting more water in the sea.

The shape of the ocean basins can change due to tectonic movement. If the ocean basins become larger, the volume of the oceans becomes larger but the overall sea level will fall since there’s the same amount of water in the ocean. Conversely, if the ocean basins get smaller, the volume of the oceans decreases and the sea level rises accordingly.

Isostatic Change

Isostatic sea level change is the result of an increase or decrease in the height of the land. When the height of the land increases, the sea level falls and when the height of the land decreases the sea level rises. Isostatic change is a local sea level change whereas eustatic change is a global sea level change.

During an ice age, isostatic change is caused by the build up of ice on the land. As water is stored on the land in glaciers, the weight of the land increases and the land sinks slightly, causing the sea level to rise slightly. This is referred to as compression. When the ice melts at the end of an ice age, the land begins to rise up again and the sea level falls. This is referred to decompression or isostatic rebound. Isostatic rebound takes place incredibly slowly and to this day, isostatic rebounding is still taking place from the last ice age.

Isostatic sea level change can also be caused by tectonic uplift or depression. As this only takes place along plate boundaries, this sort of isostatic change only takes place in certain areas of the world.

Coastal Environments 7

Read the statement below and write down the type of sea level change, that is described by it. Increases in temperature outside of an ice age will also effect the sea level since an increasing temperature will cause the ice sheets to melt, putting more water in the sea.

Eustatic change is when the sea level changes due to an alteration in the volume of water in the oceans or, alternatively, a change in the shape of an ocean basin and hence a change in the amount of water the sea can hold. Eustatic change is always a global effect.

Coastal Environments 8

Read the statement below and write down the type of sea level change, that was described here.

During an ice age, ____________ is caused by the build up of ice on the land. As water is stored on the land in glaciers, the weight of the land increases and the land sinks slightly, causing the sea level to rise slightly. This is referred to as compression.

Isostatic sea level change is the result of an increase or decrease in the height of the land. When the height of the land increases, the sea level falls and when the height of the land decreases the sea level rises. Isostatic change is a local sea level change.

Coastal Environments 9

As which type of sea level change features could be classified raised beach?

Emergent features are features of coastal erosion that appear to have developed well above the current sea level. Really, they developed when the sea was at that level and then the sea level changed during and ice age and now they’re above sea level.

Raised beaches are wave-cut platforms & beaches that are above the current sea level. You can normally find some old cliffs (relic cliffs) too behind these raised beaches with wave-cut notches, arches, stacks etc. along them.

Coastal Environments 10

Read the statements below and write down the name of landform.

  • a submergent feature
  • a river valley that’s been flooded by the eustatic rise in sea level
  • almost exactly like a typical river valley but they have even more water in them
  • the floodplain of the river also gets flooded, altering the cross profile of a ___ ever so slightly so that it includes the floodplain

 

Ria. This is a river valley that’s been flooded by the eustatic rise in sea level. They’re almost exactly like a typical river valley but they have even more water in them. The cross section of a ria is really similar to the one you’d find for a river in the lower course. One thing to note, the floodplain of the river also gets flooded, altering the cross profile of a ria ever so slightly so that it includes the floodplain.